• Katja Klingebiel Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics
  • Bernd Hellingrath University of Münster
  • Sílvio Pires Methodist University of Piracicaba
  • Luiz Felipe Scavarda Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro


Supply Chain Management, Order Penetration Point, Automotive industry, Supply Chain Flexibility, Product Diversity


The placement of the order penetration point (OPP) is a key decision in automotive supply chains since the product will be differentiated according to the customers’ requirements only after the OPP. From a marketing perspective variety proliferation is encouraged. Yet, competition has shifted from individual firms to global supply chains and under given market uncertainty the significance of supply chain flexibility is increasing. Upstream however, the expansion of outsourcing, supplier rationalization and lean production practices has yielded substantial progress in terms of supply chain efficiency. In order to economically operate the supply chain, the positioning of order penetration points is vital to inflict as much downstream process and product flexibility to be amenable to changing market demand and to guarantee as much upstream stability to allow for accurate and risk-controlled planning of cost-efficient supply chain processes. This paper identifies and analyses the main factors related to OPP problems and presents a method for OPP positioning under a supply chain perspective, integrating the influence of product diversity and supply chain flexibility over a complete product life-cycle systematically.


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Author Biographies

Katja Klingebiel, Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics

Katja Klingebiel is head of the Research Center for Logistics Assistance Systems at the Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics in Dortmund, Germany. She studied applied mathematics and obtained her Doctoral Degree (Dr.-Ing.) at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Dortmund. She worked several years in automotive consulting as well as for the Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics. Her areas of expertise include supply chain management, order management and business process reengineering.

Bernd Hellingrath, University of Münster

Bernd Hellingrath is Full Professor for Information Systems and Supply Chain Management at the University of Münster. From 2006 to 2008 he was Professor for Information Systems, esp. Planning and Modeling of Production and Logistics Networks at the University of Paderborn. From 1988 to 2008 he joined the Fraunhofer Institute of Material Flow and Logistics as head of different departments and researcher. His Doctoral Degree (Dr.-Ing.) was obtained at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at University of Dortmund.

Sílvio Pires, Methodist University of Piracicaba

Silvio R. I. Pires is graduated and has a master and doctoral degree in Production Engineering and more than twenty five years of professional experience as manager, consulting and professor of operations and supply chain management in Brazil, Switzerland, Spain, and France. Alongside he has been working for companies as Volkswagen, International Paper, SAP, Embraer, Vallourec-Mannesmann, Deloitte Consulting, Gerdau Group, and Santillana Group

Luiz Felipe Scavarda, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro

Luiz Felipe Scavarda is Professor at the Industrial Engineering Department of PUC-Rio. His Graduate, Master, and Doctoral degrees in Industrial Engineering were obtained at PUC-Rio. His areas of expertise are in the field of supply chain management, having: conducted research and industrial projects in different countries. During 2000/2002 he joined as visiting researcher the German Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation and in 2009 he was a post-doctoral fellow at the Vienna University of Technology.


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How to Cite

Klingebiel, K., Hellingrath, B., Pires, S., & Scavarda, L. F. (2011). INTEGRATED DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF LOGISTIC NETWORKS: ORIENTED PLACEMENT OF THE ORDER PENETRATION POINT. Brazilian Journal of Operations & Production Management, 8, 103–120. Retrieved from




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